Crystal Island was presented to the Moscow Public and Architectural Council last Friday and is a highly anticipated new project. Located on the Nagatino Peninsula, edged by the Moscow River, it is located only 7.5 km from the Kremlin, and offers panoramic views over Moscow from a viewing platform at its apex.
Crystal Island will have a range of cultural, exhibition and performance facilities, approximately 3000 hotel rooms and 900 serviced apartments, as well as offices and shops, designed to maintain a dynamic and animated public realm throughout the day. Residents are able to work and live within a densely planned area where every amenity is within easy walking distance, including an international school for 500 students. Mixed-use also presents a strong case for energy balance, with individual components using energy at different times, while reinforcing the breadth of economic and social activity of the area.
The building’s spiraling form emerges majestically from a newly landscaped park, rising in converse directions to form a diagonal grid. This distinctive geometry extends throughout the project into the park. The result is that the scheme is seamlessly integrated into a new park landscape, which provides a range of activities throughout the year, including cross country skiing and ice skating in the winter.
The internal built volumes of over one million square metres (more than ten million square feet) assume a staggered formation within the triangulated steel mega frame, extending flush against the sloping facetted glazed outer skin. This terracing creates a series of wintergardens, which form a breathable second layer and thermal buffer for the main building, shielding the interior spaces from Moscow’s extreme summer and winter climates. A vertical louvre system sheaths the internal facades to ensure privacy for the individual apartments.
Enclosure panels on a dynamic geometry are slotted into the structural framing to allow daylight to penetrate deep into the heart of the scheme and can be controlled to modify the internal environment – closed in winter for extra warmth and opened in summer to allow natural ventilation. Energy management is at the heart of the design, with additional strategies to include on-site renewable and low-carbon energy generation.
Norman Foster said: “Crystal Island is one of the world’s most ambitious building projects and it represents a milestone in the 40 year history of the practice. It is the largest single building in the world, creating a year-round destination for Moscow and a sustainable, dynamic new urban quarter. It is a paradigm of compact, mixed-use, sustainable city planning, with an innovative energy strategy and ‘smart’ skin which buffers against climate extremes.”
Total Gross External Area (Above Ground) 1,100,000 m2
Site area 440,000 m2
Level Gross external area
Public 360deg Top Observation Deck 300m 3000 m2
Public 360deg Main Observation Deck 150m 6000 m2
Serviced apartments – approx. 900 units 80m to 140m 265,000 m2
Hotel – approx. 3000 keys 12m to 80m 245,000 m2
Offices 40m to 80m 75,000 m2
Retail, Catering, Entertainment 0m to 40m 160,000 m2
Museum and IMAX 0m to 40m 100,000 m2
Theatres – 1500, 750, 750 seats 0m to 40m 95,000 m2
School – 500 students 0m to 40m 4000 m2
Covered Public Space 150,000 m2
Sub-Total Above Ground 1,100,000 m2
Sub-Total Above 150m 3,000 m2
Underground Parking – approx. 14,000 spaces 525,000 m2
Utilities and services 875,000 m2
Sub-Total Below Ground 1,400,000 m2
Total 2,503,000 m2
Top of structure 450m
Top Viewing Platform 300m
Main Viewing Platform 150m
Perimeter building height 20m
Floor to floor heights (above ground) 4m
Floor to floor height retail 6m
Floor to floor height parking 4m
Diameter of Tent 620m